This policy paper identifies two key dilemmas of the EU’s rule of law promotion: 1. The problem of supporting unaccountable reformers in a partisan way (ownership dilemma); 2. The problem of valuing quantity over quality (change vs. stability dilemma). It is argued that these dilemmas reinforce legal pathologies which undermine the rule of law in Central and Eastern Europe. Two unconventional policy recommendations are offered to enhance the quality of rule of law reform and assessment.