These two policy papers are looking at organised crime the trafficking of women respectively and how they relate to corruption.
Policy Paper 1: Organised crime and Political Corruption
Based on recent trends and patterns across EU Member States (MS), this policy paper with recommendations aims at investigating the strategies and initiatives that are already in place or that can be adopted to tackle the link between organised crime and corruption in the public procurement process and in electoral politics at the EU and MS level. The framework developed in this study contributes to the definition of a more advanced and comprehensive policy framework that considers enforcement through criminal justice only a single component of a much wider and deeper action including enhanced strategies of detection, based on a risk-assessment approach, and of prevention, based on blacklisting and whitelisting systems. This model also embraces an administrative approach in tackling the problem, combining reputational forms of intervention with more traditional conviction-based decisions.
Policy Paper 2: Corruption and trafficking in women
Human trafficking is a complex offence incorporating various activities and involving a number of interactions with the surrounding socio-economic and legal environment. The current analysis accounts for this complexity by exploring connections between trafficking and phenomena associated with trafficking in human beings (THB). Human trafficking has three main stages – recruitment, transportation and exploitation. During these stages criminals are confronted with a variety of factors which influence their cost-benefit calculations and the actions they take. Legal frameworks and the degree of robustness with which they are enforced are crucial in this respect (Rusev, 2013). Notwithstanding the importance of domestic trafficking, THB often involves the (illegal) crossing of borders (although not necessarily border controls), demonstrated by the fact that in major European destination countries, identified victims as well as perpetrators are overwhelmingly of foreign origin (Eurostat, 2015). Furthermore, since the majority of victims in the EU are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation, the legal framework on paid sex work is also addressed.