Policy paper with recommendations on corruption and trafficking in women

Human trafficking is a complex offence incorporating various activities and involving a number of interactions with the surrounding socio-economic and legal environment. The current analysis accounts for this complexity by exploring connections between trafficking and phenomena associated with trafficking in human beings (THB). Human trafficking has three main stages – recruitment, transportation and exploitation. During these stages criminals are confronted with a variety of factors which influence their cost-benefit calculations and the actions they take. Legal frameworks and the degree of robustness with which they are enforced are crucial in this respect (Rusev, 2013). Notwithstanding the importance of domestic trafficking, THB often involves the (illegal) crossing of borders (although not necessarily border controls), demonstrated by the fact that in major European destination countries, identified victims as well as perpetrators are overwhelmingly of foreign origin (Eurostat, 2015). Furthermore, since the majority of victims in the EU are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation, the legal framework on paid sex work is also addressed.

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